Transcription

Chapter 5.25.2Public transport

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1EVOLVING PUBLIC TRANSPORT POLICY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SETTLEMENTPLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1White Paper on national transport policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Legislation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Moving South Africa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2PRINCIPLES TO ACHIEVE THE FUNDAMENTAL RESTRUCTURING OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT . . . . . . . . . . . 4PUBLIC TRANSPORT OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7GUIDELINES FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT SUPPORTIVE SETTLEMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Planning settlements that are accessible to public transport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Contextualisation and connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Public transport framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Integration of public transport and movement networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Integration of land use and public transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Providing for buses, minibuses and bus stops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18CONCLUSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23iPublic transportChapter 5.2

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF TABLESTable 5.2.1The relationship between public transport services and residential density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18LIST OF FIGURESFigure 5.2.1Urban densification options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 5.2.2Principles to achieve the public transport supportive structure necessaryfor fundamental restructuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Figure 5.2.3Example of four public transport network concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Figure 5.2.4Context and site analysis map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Figure 5.2.5A transport framework for settlement planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Figure 5.2.6Location of bus stops on major arterial roads of freeway standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Figure 5.2.7A public transport feeder route in an open network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Figure 5.2.8A public transport feeder route in relation to neighbourhood activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Figure 5.2.9Car-oriented network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Figure 5.2.10Modification of a closed road network to provide an open movement network . . . . . . . . . .15Figure 5.2.11Land-use elements in relation to the transport framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Figure 5.2.12Dimensions of bus bays and bus turning circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Figure 5.2.13Road layouts reflecting evolving planning practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Figure 5.2.14Relationship between bus stops and a commercial site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21APPENDICESAPPENDIX APUBLIC TRANSPORT CATCHMENTS AS THE BASIS FOR NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING . . . . . . .23APPENDIX BGUIDELINES FOR ESTIMATING PUBLIC TRANSPORT DEMAND ANDASSOCIATED PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS IN SETTLEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24APPENDIX CTHE MOVING SOUTH AFRICA (MSA) STRATEGY WITH REFERENCE TO LANDUSE AND LAND MANAGEMENT ISSUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26iiChapter 5.2Public transport

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNINTRODUCTIONPublic transport policy, strategy, planning, operationsand management are all currently in a state of flux inSouth Africa. In the recent past, in most urban areasthe focus of public transport bodies was largely theprovision of basic services for low-incomecommunities, whose travel choices do not extend towalking, cycling or driving to their destinations. Inmost medium- to high-income areas, only rudimentaryservices exist which can barely be considered analternative to the motor car. Accordingly, publictransport services in South Africa have been designedto serve the perceived need to assemble labour fromdistant suburbs and satellite low-income dormitories,at centralised workplaces. There were, and still are,very few off-peak services. Public transport to servenon-work trip purposes has also been neglected. Inrecent years, public transport has come to bedominated by minibus taxis, which do not run toschedule and which have tended to follow the line ofleast resistance through the townships andsettlements, in order to give operators the opportunityof maximising the number of journeys, and thus theirprofits. Service to customers has not been of primaryconcern.The foregoing is the public transport context withinwhich the planners of new settlements will beoperating in the short to medium term (the next fiveto ten years). Settlement planners1 will, however, bechallenged to assist transport authorities2 in changingdirection and building cities and towns which facilitatepublic transport, and make it more accessible, viableand sustainable. It is, therefore, essential that theplanners of settlements in urban areas shouldunderstand the current and evolving public transportpolicies so that they can assist in facilitating settlementwhich is supportive of public transport. This guidedoes not deal with settlements in rural areas, althoughmany of the principles and standards are applicable.The next section provides a summary of relevantdocumentation about public transport, and gives anindication of the likely directions of change in thecoming ten years, to provide settlement planners withan understanding of the context within whichsettlement planning will be undertaken.12EVOLVING PUBLIC TRANSPORTPOLICY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FORSETTLEMENT-PLANNINGWhite Paper on national transport policyThe strategic objectives of the White Paper which arerelevant to settlement-planning and which should beincorporated in future settlements are summarisedbelow: Public transport travel distances and times for worktrips should be limited to about 40 km, or one hourin each direction. This means that new settlementsshould be located no further than 40 km from themajor work destinations. Further, as a generalguideline, settlements should rather be located asclose as possible to places of work and other urbanactivities so as to facilitate trips by bicycle or onfoot. Where this is not possible, settlements shouldbe located close enough to work destinations toenable public transport vehicles to make two ormore trips from the settlement to the work placeor school in peak-hour periods. An objective has been set to promote the use ofpublic transport over private car travel with anambitious 4:5 ratio of public to private transportbeing set as a target. To assist in the achievementof this objective, settlement plans should havecirculation systems or movement layouts whichmake all dwellings accessible to public transport(see Sub-chapter 5.1). Within the strategic objectives for improvingaccessibility, a target has been set of reducingwalking distances to public-transport facilities toless than about one kilometre. Most people takeabout 15 minutes to walk one kilometre, so thisobjective should be regarded as a minimum. A farmore desirable target for settlement-planning willbe to place every dwelling within about sevenminutes of a public transport boarding point(around 400-500 m). A final strategic objective which should be takeninto account in settlement-planning is the object ofpromoting and planning for the use of nonmotorised transport. Accordingly, settlementsshould be planned as places with a variety of urbanactivities, containing workplaces, schools, shops,recreational and community facilities, anddwellings. They should also have movementnetworks which permit direct pedestrian access toactivities and public transport facilities (see Subchapter 5.1).This applies to all professions involved in the planning and design of settlements.Transport authorities are provincial or municipal governments responsible for pubic transport and roads interms of schedule 4 of the constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act of 1996.1Public transportChapter 5.2

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNThe White Paper also contains a number of policystatements that should be taken into account insettlement planning. These include the following: Land-development proposals (which includesettlement plans) should be subject to a spatialpolicy framework within an agreed developmentplanning process. This means that the settlementplan must be approved in terms of an integrateddevelopment plan (IDP), part of which is anintegrated transport plan (ITP)3. Accordingly,settlement planners will, at the outset, need toconsult transport authorities to ensure that theplanned settlement will be complementary to theintegrated transport plan (ITP), which includespublic transport strategies and operations. Land-use development at local level (settlements)will be subject to development approval inconformity with integrated development plans. The settlement plan should be cognisant of thedesignated public transport corridors and nodescontained in regional, metropolitan or urban IDPs.Thus, it will be necessary to contextualise thesettlement within such a spatial plan. Every newsettlement will be either adjacent to, or distantfrom, a major line-haul public transport corridor (inrare cases the public transport corridor may evenbisect a settlement). The form of the settlementshould be strongly influenced by its spatialrelationship to line-haul public transport corridors,modal interchanges and feeder corridors; in thisregard, specific guidelines on planning principlesand design standards will be provided in latersections. At this juncture, it is sufficient to note thatin terms of the White Paper, settlement plans willneed to give effect to the policy of locatingemployment activities within (or close to) the publictransport corridors and nodes (interchanges).Likewise, the settlement plan should facilitate theprovision of higher density and mixed land usesadjacent to public transport facilities. A high density of development is important forpublic transport, in that it supports differentiatedpublic-transport provision and enhances operatingefficiency.This means that settlement plans will be subject topolicies set out in integrated development andtransport plans, as indicated earlier. Accordingly, inthe short term, settlement planners can be guided bythe objectives and policies set out in the White Paperwhich will, in due course, be given effect through theLand Transport Act. An important component of theAct will be the establishment of transport authorities,who will be responsible for planning for publictransport. Settlement planners must consult transportauthorities as an essential part of the planning process.Moving South AfricaMoving South Africa (MSA) (South Africa, Departmentof Transport 1998) was a project of the NationalDepartment of Transport, completed in September1998, which aimed to develop a long-term transportstrategy for South Africa. The strategies identified inMSA entitled “Towards a transport strategy for 2020”,will impact on settlement-planning. Appendix C tothis sub-chapter contains a summary of thesestrategies. The following are the main features of MSAwhich are significant to settlement-planning: Line-haul, mass public transport will beconcentrated into relatively few public transportcorridors to provide conditions that will attracthigh-density mixed land uses. It is expected thatmost new urban employment activities will beencouraged to locate within such corridors. The quality of public transport and the extent ofsocial support for the services will depend on themarket segments served in each of the corridors.Settlement planners should thus be aware of thecustomer segmentation in the settlement, as thiswill provide an indication of the type of servicethat can be expected. Moving South Africa has developed a broad set ofguidelines for determining the type of publictransport infrastructure which will be appropriateto each corridor. These are only guidelinesbecause, in due course, transport authorities willexamine corridors on their own merits anddetermine their particular public transport p