1 Free GrammarE-BookLevel

2 Table of ContentsPresent Simple: To Be 4Possessives 6Articles: A, An, The 7This, That, These, Those 8Present Simple 10Can / Can't / Have to / Don't Have to 14Prepositions: In, At, On 15Past Simple: To Be 17Past Simple: Regular Verbs 18Past Simple: Irregular Verbs 20There is / There are 22Present Continuous 23Present Simple or Continuous 26Countable and Uncountable 27Future with Going To 29Comparative Adjectives 31Superlative Adjectives 34Adverbs 36Present Perfect: Verb be 38Present Perfect: Other Verbs 40Present Perfect or Past Simple

3 Welcome!Espresso English has fun, fast online Englishlessons every week! The lessons include reading,listening, vocabulary, grammar, and practice exercises. Ifyou have a question, you can contact the teacher.This book teaches beginner-level grammar topics withlinks to grammar exercises on the website. EspressoEnglish will publish intermediate and advanced levelgrammar books in the future – so sign up for the e-mailsto get news about books, courses, and other products.This Grammar e-Book is free – so please share it withyour friends. I hope you enjoy it!- Shayna

4 Present Simple: BePositive:I amI’mfrom / we / they areyou’re / we’re / they’refrom Brazil.he / she / it ishe’s / she’s / it’sfrom India.Negative:I am notI’m / we / theyare notYou’re not / You aren’tWe’re not / We aren’tThey’re not / They aren’thappy.he / she / itis notHe isn’t / He’s notShe isn’t / She’s notIt isn’t / It’s nota student.Question:AmIbeautiful?Areyou / we / theya teacher?Ishe / she / ittall?

5 Present Simple: BeName:I’m Joanna.He’s Paulo.They’re Aki and Yuta.Country / Nationality:I’m from the U.S. I’m American.My husband is from Italy. He’s Italian.She’s not Korean, she’s Vietnamese.Are they from Australia?Age:I’m 27 years old.How old are you?She’s 15.My mother is 65 years old.Emotions:I’m sad.She’s excited.You’re angry.We’re happy.Jobs:I’m not a student. I’m a teacher.Are you a doctor?He’s a journalist.They’re artists.Grammar Exercise: Present Simple:

6 PossessivesNOUNPOSSESSIVEEXAMPLEImyMy name is Sandra.youyourWhat’s your name?hehisHis name is John.sheherHer computer is fast.ititsMy car is old, so its engine isn’t powerful.weourOur apartment is in the city center.theytheirMy parents sold their house.MaryMary’sMary’s phone number is 555-4321.JoeJoe’sJoe’s favorite color is green.the boythe boy’sThe boy’s clothes are dirty.friendsfriends’My friends’ names are Patrick and Gloria.catcat’sMy cat’s name is Ginger.countrycountry’sMy country’s flag is red, white, and blue.Don’t confuse its (possessive) with it’s (contraction for “it is”)!The cat ate it’s foodThe cat ate its food.Its illegal for a 17-year-old to buy alcohol.It’s illegal for a 17-year-old to buy alcohol.Grammar Exercise:

7 Articles: A, An, TheI’m going to eat an apple.a / angeneral(one ofmany)I’m going to eat the red apple.I want to buy a car.He’s eating an apple.Do you have a bike?She is an old woman.I’m reading a book.thespecific(onespecific)Tokyo is the capital of Japan.The new Chinese restaurant is very good.We like the blue car.The girl in the red dress is beautiful.I’m reading the new book by J.K.

8 Articles: A, An, TheUse “an” if the word starts with the sound of a, e, i, o, u:an applean eggan ice cream shopan open dooran umbrellaan hourUse “a” if the word starts with the sound of any other letter.Do not use “the” with countries or cities:I live in the China.I live in China.Do not use “the” with things in general:She likes the pizza.She likes pizza.She likes the pizza from Tony’s Restaurant. (specific)Grammar Exercise: A, An,

9 This, That, These, ThoseThis1 thing – nearThat1 thing – farThese2 things – nearThose2 things – farThis apple is green.These books are new.That apple is red.Those books are

10 Present Simple: PositiveUse the present simple for things that happen regularly or thingsthat are generally true.I / you / we / theyworkhe / she / itworksExamples:I work in a bank.He works at the university.We work every day.My sister works at the hospital.Special Case #1For verbs that end in consonant –y, we remove the –y andadd –ies:I study English at school.Dana studies English at school.Bill studys English at schoolOther verbs like this include: cry, try, fly, carrySpecial Case #2For verbs that end in -o, -sh, -s, -ss, -ch, -x, we add -es.They go to English class on Wednesday.She goes to cooking class on Saturday.She gos to cooking class on Saturday.Other verbs like this include: watch, kiss, teach,

11 Present Simple: NegativeUse the present simple negative for things that are not generallytrue.I / you / we / theyhe / she / itdon’tlikedoesn'tlikeExamples:I don't like coffee.John doesn't like pizza.John and David don't like milk.My mother doesn't like to travel.Common Errors1) In the present simple negative, do not add -s:Martha doesn't likes to dance.Martha doesn't like to dance.2) Other common errors:Pete no like bananas.Pete not like bananas.Pete doesn’t like

12 Present Simple: QuestionsUse present simple questions to ask about things that happenregularly or things that are generally true.DoI / you / we / theylive in a city?Doeshe / she / itlive in a city?Examples: Do you live in Brazil? Does Adam live in England? Do they live in a big house? Does she live near the beach?Common Errors1) In questions, don't use -s:Does she lives close to the beach?Does she live close to the beach?2) Don’t forget DO or DOES:Clara live in a big city?Does Clara live in a big city?

13 Present Simple: AnsweringYes/No QuestionsDo you have a dog?Yes, I do. / No, I don'tDo I look fat in these jeans?No, you don’t!Does John speak Italian?Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.Does she like rock music?Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.Do we watch too much TV?Yes, we do. / No, we don’t.Do they understand English?Yes, they do. / No, they don't.Grammar Exercises:Present Simple PositivePresent Simple NegativePresent Simple

14 Can / Can’t / Must / Mustn’tHave to / Don’t have toCanIt’s OKCan’t / Mustn’tIt’s not OKHave to / MustIt’s necessary / obligatoryDon’t have toDoesn’t have toIt’s not necessary / obligatory(it’s optional)(must / mustn’t are more formal)You can ride your bike here.You can’t smoke here.You mustn’t smoke here.FREEFOOD!You have to stop here.You don’t have to payYou must stop here.www.espressoenglish.netfor the food.

15 Prepositions: In, At, OnTIMEINMonthsPLACECities and countriesIn JanuaryIn TokyoIn OctoberIn JapanSeasonsRooms and buildingsIn the summerIn the kitchenIn the springIn the supermarketYearsClosed spacesIn 2004In the carIn 1986In a parkPeriods of the dayIn the morningIn the evening(exception: at night)

16 ONTIMEPLACEDates and daysTransportationOn MondayOn the busthOn February 14On a bike(exception: in a car)SurfacesOn the tableOn the wallATTIMEPLACETimesContexts / EventsAt 6:00At schoolAt half past threeAt workAt noonAt a partyGrammar Exercise: Prepositions: In, On,

17 Past Simple: To BePositive:I / he / she / itwasborn in / we / theywereborn in 1982.Negative:I / he / she / itwas not (wasn’t)born in / we / theywere not (weren’t)born in Europe.WasI / he / she / ita famous artist?Wereyou / we / theya famous artist?Questions:Common words used to talk about the past:YesterdayLast Sunday / last week / last month /last November / last year1 hour ago / 5 days ago / 3 months ago / 10 years agoWhen I was a child / When we were in college Grammar Exercise: Past Simple: To

18 Past Simple: Regular VerbsPositive:I / you / he / she / it / we / theyworkedyesterdaydidn’t workyesterdayNegative:I / you / he / she / it / we / theyQuestion:DidI / you / he / she / it / workwe / theyyesterday?How to form the past simple for regular verbs:VerbPastSpellinglistenplaylistenedplayedAdd -edlikedecidelikeddecidedAdd -dstopstoppedOne vowel one consonant double the final consonant andadd -edstudytrystudiedtriedOne consonant y

19 Past Simple: Regular VerbsIn past simple negative and questions, do not add -ed:Mary didn’t liked the movie.Mary didn’t like the movie.Did you studied for the test?Did you study for the test?Examples:I talked with my mother last night.We enjoyed the party on Saturday.She finished the test early.He didn’t listen to the teacher’s instructions.They didn’t want to join us for coffee.Jill didn’t stay in a hotel last summer.Did you watch the news yesterday?Did they remember to turn off the lights?What time did your father arrive?Grammar Exercise: Past Simple Regular

20 Past Simple: Irregular VerbsInfinitivePositiveNegativebewas / werewasn’t / weren’tbuyboughtdidn’t buycancouldcouldn’teatatedidn’t eatgetgotdidn’t getgowentdidn’t gohavehaddidn’t haveleaveleftdidn’t leavemakemadedidn’t makemeetmetdidn’t meetsaysaiddidn’t sayseesawdidn’t seetaketookdidn’t takethinkthoughtdidn’t thinkunderstandunderstooddidn’t understandwearworedidn’t wearwritewrotedidn’t

21 Past Simple: Irregular VerbsExamples:Where were you last month?I was in France.What did your sister buy at the mall?She bought new shoes.What time did he eat breakfast today?He ate breakfast at 6:00 AM.When did you get married?We got married in July.Why did she go to London?She went to London to study English.Did you have any pets when you were a child?Yes, I had a dog.When did he leave the meeting?He left the meeting an hour before it finishedWhat did you make for dinner?I made some vegetable soup.When did you meet your best friend?I met my best friend 20 years ago.What did the teacher say?The teacher said that she loved our class.Did you see Brad at the football game?No, but we saw Peter and Henry.What did he wear to the wedding?He wore a suit.Did he write a new book last year?No, he only wrote a few magazine articles.Grammar Exercise: Past Simple – Irregular

22 There is / There areSingularPlural( ) There’s a pillow on the sofa.There are two pillows on the bed.(-) There isn’t a mirror in thebathroom.There aren’t any windows in thebedroom.(?) Is there a table?Are there any chairs?Yes, there is. / No, there isn’t. Yes, there are. / No, there aren’t.There’s a pillow on the sofa.Is there a table? Yes, there is.There are two pillows on the bed.Are there any chairs?No, there aren’

23 Present Continuous: PositivePresent continuous is for things happening now, at the moment.Iamwatchingyou / we / theyarewatchinghe / she / itiswatchingExamples:I am watching TV right now.He is studying at the moment.It is raining today.We are thinking about you.They are playing baseball.It’s very common to use contractions:I'm watching TV right now.He's studying at the moment.It's raining today.We're thinking about you.They're playing baseball.Some verbs are never used in the present continuous:like, want, need, believe.I’m believing in God.I believe in God.She’s wanting a soda.She wants a

24 Present Continuous: NegativeIam not(I’m not)listeningyou / we / theyare not(aren’t)listeninghe / she / itis not(isn’t)listeningExamples:I am not working at the moment.She is not wearing a hat today.You are not listening to the teacher.Pete and Jan are not watching TV.There are two ways to use contractions:She’s not wearing a hat today.She isn’t wearing a hat today.You’re not listening to the teacher.You aren’t listening to the teacher.Both forms are OK!

25 Present Continuous: QuestionsAmIworking?Areyou / we / theyworking?Ishe / she / itworking?Examples:Are you writing a letter?Is Pedro sleeping right now?Are the children playing a game or reading a book?Is the computer working?You can put a question word at the beginning:What are you doing?I’m writing an e-mail.Where is Sarah going?She’s going to the store.Who are they talking to?They’re talking to the teacher.Why is he running?Because he’s late for work.Grammar Exercises:Present Continuous PositivePresent Continuous NegativePresent Continuous

26 Present Simple or Continuous?Present simple for things that happen in general or regularly.Present continuous for things happening now, at the moment, orcurrent/temporary projects.Present SimplePresent ContinuousI work from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PMevery day.I’m currently working on a newproject.Mark studies English everyTuesday night.Mark is studying the presentcontinuous this week.We usually go to Europe in thesummer.Right now, we’re going to thesupermarket.They always talk to their boss inthe morning.It’s 9:00 AM. They’re talking tohim now.Does it usually rain in the winter?No, but it’s raining at themoment. Take an umbrella.Words that are often used with the present simple or continuous:With present simple: always, usually, often, sometimes,never, every (day/night/Monday/summer/year)With present continuous: now, right now, at t