State of CaliforniaDepartment of Pesticide RegulationPest ControlAircraft PilotStudy GuideFor the Following CommercialPesticide Applicator Examinations:Apprentice Pest Control Aircraft Pilot CertificateJourneyman Pest Control Aircraft Pilot Certificate

iiThis publication resulted from a contractbetween the Pest Management and Licensing Branch of theDepartment of Pesticide RegulationandPatrick J. O’Connor-Marer, Ph.D., Roseville, CA.Writer, Editor, and DesignerPatrick J. O’Connor-Marer.Principal Pest Management and LicensingCoordinator and EditorAdolfo R. GalloEditing and ProofreadingPatricia Jones O’Connor-MarerPhoto CreditsLarry A. Barber, USDA Forest Service Archiveshttp://www.forestryimages.orgFigures 2.1(R), 9.7Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service Photo Figure 1.1Terry Gage, California Agricultural Aircraft AssociationFigures 2.1(L), 3.5, 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 9.2Patricia A. Hipkins, Virginia Tech Pesticide ProgramsNational Pesticide Media Databasehttp://pesticidepics.orgFigure 4.2Michael J. Weaver, Virginia Tech Pesticide ProgramsNational Pesticide Media Databasehttp://pesticidepics.orgFigures 1.5, 2.2, 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.5, 6.2, 8.1, 8.2USDA Agricultural Research Service Photo Figures 6.1, 8.2, Sidebar 35

iiiState of CaliforniaArnold SchwarzeneggerGovernorLinda S. AdamsSecretary for Environmental ProtectionMary-Ann WarmerdamDirectorCalifornia Department of Pesticide RegulationThis guide was published by theCalifornia Department of Pesticide RegulationPest Management and Licensing BranchLicensing and Certification Program1001 I Street, P.O. Box 4015Sacramento, CA 95812-4015Phone: additional copies or more information, contactthe Licensing and Certification Programat the above address, phone number, or web address.Any part of this study guide may be reproduced or distributedwithout permission for any BUT profit-making purposes.Publication Number PML PCAPSG 1 (Est. 06/06)

ivTechnical Advisory CommitteeThe following people served on the Aerial Applicator Advisory Committee that providedtechnical information, ideas, and suggestions for this manual and reviewed various manuscript drafts. They served as key resources for specific subject matter areas.Pest Control Aircraft Pilots:Craig ComptonAVAGRichvale, CAJohn FrazierWinters, CADan GudgelGudgel’s Agro-AgChowchilla, CARay PojanowskiPorterville, CARick RichterRichter AviationMaxwell, CARuss StockerDavis, CAAerial Pest Control AssociationRepresentatives:Terry GagePresidentCalifornia Agricultural AircraftAssociationLincoln, CAKen Degg (ex officio)Director of Safety and EducationNational Agricultural AviationAssociationWashington, DCRegulatory AgencyRepresentatives:Adolfo GalloDPR Pest Management and LicensingBranchSacramento, CA 95812-4015Roy HiroseDPR Pesticide Enforcement BranchSacramento, CAMac TakedaDPR Pest Management andLicensing BranchSacramento, CARobert J. McKenna (ex officio)USAEC/Booz Allen HamiltonMcLean, VA

vTable of ContentsList of TablesixList of SidebarsIntroductionx1The Examinations1Scope of this Manual2How to Use this Manual2What Knowledge and Skills are Expected of Pilots3Chapter 1: Laws and Regulations for the Aerial ApplicatorFederal Regulations1111General Provisions12Operator Certification RuleOperating Rule1416Records and Reports20California Pest Control Aircraft Pilot Certification Requirements20Apprentice Pest Control Aircraft Pilot Certificate (AP)21Journeyman Pest Control Aircraft Pilot Certificate (JP)23California Laws and RegulationsPesticide Label RestrictionsReview Questions232530Chapter 2: Pest ManagementAerial Application3334Vegetation and WeedsHerbicides3536Insect and Mite Pests39Plant Disease Organisms— The Disease TriangleReview Questions43Chapter 3: Pesticide Safety45Pesticides and Human Health46First Aid for Pesticide Exposure4942

viMedical Monitoring for Certain Occupational Pesticide ExposuresSafety Practices around AircraftEmployee Habits525357Personal Protective Equipment and Safety EquipmentDealing with Pesticide Emergencies62Pesticide Leaks and Spills63Pesticide Fires5868Misapplication of Pesticides68Aircraft and Pesticide Security69Knowing and Understanding Potential Security ThreatsReview Questions7072Chapter 4: Safe Pesticide Handling Techniques 75Communicating with the Ground CrewTransporting and Storing PesticidesHandling Pesticide ContainersMixing and Loading767778Cleaning Equipment and ContainersReview Questions768283Chapter 5: Aerial Pesticide Dispersal Systems 85General Requirements85Dispersal System ComponentsSpray Pumps86Tanks and HoppersScreens868788Pipes, Hoses, and Fittings in an Aerial Dispersal SystemSpray Booms and Boom CouplingsFlow Meter and Pressure GaugeNozzles899090Spraying System Operating PressureElectronic Sprayer Rate ControllersDry Material Spreaders93929388

viiCentrifugal SpreaderReview Questions9697Chapter 6: Aerial Application Guidance Systems 101Navigation Methods101Global Positioning SystemsDifferential GPS101103Using DGPS for Aerial Application105Computers, Spray Output Controllers, and SensorsSmoke GeneratorsHuman FlaggersReview Questions106107108109Chapter 7: Preparing for an Aerial Application 111Understanding the Recommendation or Work OrderPilot Qualifications and LimitationsScouting the Target Site111112113Pesticide Label Restrictions114California State and Local Regulations and RestrictionsPlanning and Scheduling the Application118Plans for Managing Offsite Pesticide MovementPlanning for Emergencies120Ground Crew EmergenciesReview Questions121124Chapter 8: Calibrating Aerial Application Equipment 127Why Calibration is Essential128Equipment Calibration Methods129Calibrating Liquid Sprayers129Calibrating Granule ApplicatorsReview Questions138146Chapter 9: Aerial Application Technology 151Ferrying152Checking the Application Site152120115

viiiWhat to Watch for During an ApplicationApplication MethodsFlight Patterns154155157Applying Granules158Pesticide Dust Application159Factors Influencing the Stability and Maneuverability of the Aircraft DuringApplication Operations 162Controlling Offsite Pesticide DriftDroplet SizeReview Questions167173Answers to Review QuestionsGlossaryIndex179191178162

ixList of TablesTable 1Aerial Applicator Performance Objectives4Table 1.1Qualifications and Requirements that Are Needed for Each Level of theAgricultural Aerial Application Operation 22Table 9.1Spray Droplet Spectrum Categories and Recommendations for VariousPesticide Types or Uses 170

xList of SidebarsSidebar 1Web Addresses for Downloading Free Publications13Sidebar 2Reasons for Pesticide Laws and RegulationsSidebar 3Responsibilities of Government Agencies in California’s PesticideRegulatory Program 26Sidebar 4Scientific Data and Other Information Manufacturers Must Provideto DPR to Register a Pesticide in California 29Sidebar 5Herbicide TypesSidebar 6Insect Mouthpart TypesSidebar 7Application-Specific Information for HandlersSidebar 8Employee Changing AreaSidebar 9Handler Decontamination FacilitiesSidebar 10Employer Responsibility for Providing CoverallsSidebar 11Medical Monitoring ProgramSidebar 12Training Employees to Handle PesticidesSidebar 13Criteria for Fieldworker TrainingSidebar 14Avoiding Heat StressSidebar 15Employer Requirements: Providing Personal Protective Equipmentto Employee Handlers 60Sidebar 16Respiratory Protection Program for Pesticide HandlersSidebar 17Minimum Required Personal Protective EquipmentSidebar 18Exceptions and Substitutions to Required Personal ProtectiveEquipment 66Sidebar 19The Global Positioning System ProgramSidebar 20How to Reduce Drift During Aerial ApplicationsSidebar 21Notifying Beekeepers Before an ApplicationSidebar 22Notice of ApplicationsSidebar 23Notice of IntentSidebar 24Congested Area PlanSidebar 25Rescuing the Pilot from a Crashed AircraftSidebar 26Contents of a Pesticide Spill 112

xiSidebar 27Steps in Cleaning Up a Pesticide Spill123Sidebar 28Calculating the Area of a Rectangular or Square Application SiteSidebar 29Calculating the Area of a Triangular Application SiteSidebar 30Calculating the Area of a Circular Application SiteSidebar 31Calculating the Area of an Irregularly-Shaped Application SiteSidebar 32Pilot ChecklistSidebar 33Ground Crew ChecklistSidebar 34Importance of a Ground Crew During an ApplicationSidebar 35Density AltitudeSidebar 36Estimating Density AltitudeSidebar 37Key Physical Properties of a Spray Mixture that Affect SprayDroplet Size 168139140141153154155163164142


INTRODUCTION ! 131IntroductionThis manual is written for pilots who intend to become certified to operate an aircraftin California to conduct pest control with pesticides or by releasing predatory orbeneficial insects. If you make aerial pest control applications for hire to propertyyou do not own or control, or if you work for a commercial pest control business thatmakes pest control applications for hire, you fall within the commercial applicatorcategory and you must successfully pass the Apprentice Pest Control Aircraft PilotCertificate (AP) or Journeyman Pest Control Aircraft Pilot Certificate (JP) examinations. If you plan to make aerial pest control applications as a pilot, and only to landthat you own or manage, you still fall within the commercial applicator category. Forboth of these situations, you must take the Apprentice examinations and be supervisedby a journeyman pilot until you qualify for, and pass, the Journeyman examination.THE EXAMINATIONSCalifornia regulations require a pilot who performs aerial pest control to satisfactorily pass the Law and Regulations and Basic Principles examination as well as theApprentice Pest Control Aircraft Pilot Certificate examination before taking the Journeyman Aircraft Pest Control Aircraft Pilot Certificate examination. To begin this process, you must complete the examination application and submit this, along with theexamination fees, to the Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR). You can downloadapplication materials from the DPR website at, or you may obtain these materials from a county agriculturalcommissioner’s office.The Laws, Regulations, and Basic Principles Examination. The Laws, Regulations, and Basic Principles Examination tests your knowledge and skills in workingwith, handling, and applying pesticides in general. The following two study manualsare recommended for preparing for this examination:!The Laws and Regulations Study Guide. This manual may be downloadedfrom the DPR website at You

2 ! INTRODUCTION14may also purchase a copy from the Department of Pesticide Regulation, PestManagement and Licensing Branch, 1001 I Street, P.O. Box 4015, Sacramento,CA 95812-4015. Phone (916) 445-4038 (see further information on ordering this study guide in Chapter 1).!The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides, Second Edition. (UC ANR Publication #3324). This manual may be purchased from the University of California, ANR Publications, 6701 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, CA 94608. Phone(800) 994-8849. On line orders may be placed at p.SCOPE OF THIS MANUALThis manual focuses on the skills and knowledge needed to safely and properlyapply pesticides with an aircraft. It covers all the information found on the private andcommercial Aircraft Pilot Pest Control Certificate examinations. It consists of the following nine chapters:!Chapter 1. Laws and Regulations for the Aerial Applicator— an overview ofthe federal and California state laws and regulations pertaining to pilots involved in the aerial pest control.!Chapter 2. Pest Management— concepts of managing pests and how aerialpest control fits into pest management programs.!Chapter 3. Pesticide Safety— a review of the hazards associated with pesticidehandling and application, the ways these hazards can be mitigated, and theemergency procedures to follow in case of spills or accidents.!Chapter 4. Safe Pesticide Handling Techniques— ways pesticides must be applied, handled, stored, and transported to protect people and the environment.!Chapter 5. Aerial Pesticide Dispersal Systems— descriptions and functions ofthe systems used to apply liquids and granules by aircraft.!Chapter 6. Aerial Application Guidance Systems— descriptions and uses ofsystems used by pilots to make precise aerial pest control applications.!Chapter 7. Preparing for an Aerial Application— steps pilots must take toplan for and carry out efficient and effective aerial pest control applications.!Chapter 8. Calibrating Aerial Application Equipment— procedures to use toaccurately calibrate liquid and granule application equipment used on aircraft.!Chapter 9. Aerial Application Technology— methods of making aerial application of pesticides, including managing offsite pesticide drift.HOW TO USE THIS MANUALSince this manual is a study guide, each chapter is followed by a series of reviewquestions to help you test your comprehension of the concepts presented. These review questions are similar to the types of questions you will find on the DPR examinations, so they will also help you become familiar with the examination process.

INTRODUCTION ! 153It is suggested that you read a chapter and then test your comprehension of thematerial by answering the review questions. Check your answers with the answer sheeton page 178, then go back and review the sections of the chapter pertaining to thequestions you were unable to answer correctly. Repeat this process with each of thechapters.Some of the information presented in this manual may be outside of the scope ofknowledge or skills expected of pilots, but the information may prove to be interestingor useful. This type of information has been put into sidebars for supplemental reading.WHAT KNOW